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Additional resources for ASM Handbook, Volume 9: Metallography And Microstructures (ASM Handbook)

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Picral. Horizontal: 2000×; vertical: 20,000× Tempering Artifacts in Steel. When steels with medium to high carbon content are ground abusively, especially with inadequate coolant, the surface may be heated sufficiently to develop a rehardened martensitic surface layer, such as the outer white-etching layer shown in Fig. 20. A martensitic layer is likely to be quite thin. If the steels initially are in the hardened-and-untempered condition, the rehardened layer will be accompanied by a tempered layer that is much deeper and highly variable in depth; the tempered layer is dark etching.

However, highly reproducible results are achieved once the optimum conditions have been determined. Etch-Attack and Electromechanical Polishing. The material removal rate obtained with some metals, particularly the refractory metals, is very small with conventional polishing methods. This inhibits the removal of preexisting abrasion and polishing damage as well as the production of adequately scratch-free final surfaces. It is possible in many cases to increase the polishing rate acceptably by adding an active chemical etchant to the abrasive slurry.

Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Austenitic stainless steel (18Ni-8Cr). Fig. 4: taper section (horizontal magnification 600×, vertical magnification 6060×) of surface layers that were abraded on 220-grit silicon carbide paper. Fig. 5 and 6: results of abrading on 600-grit silicon carbide paper and then polishing until about 1 μm (Fig. 5) and 3 μm (Fig. 6) of metal are removed. Figure 5 shows abrasion artifacts. Figure 6 shows the true structure. Electrolytic: oxalic acid. 500× When a surface contains artifacts of the type shown in Fig.

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